10 of the most influential art movements and how they are still used today

Our postmodern society (or post-postmodern society, but let’s not start that debate) is riddled with nods to the past. Fashion says hello (again) to wide legs and high waists, architecture and interiors are ever experiencing déjà vu (free-standing baths are back) while a black-and-white film recently won three Oscars.

But when, and where, did these evergreen trends in art and design first emerge?

In their heyday, art movements took the form of rebellions—revolutions, even—and ironically, many of their now glorified names came from the mouths of those who criticized and ridiculed them (the joke’s on those who shunned the ‘little cubes’ of cubism, now known as one of the most groundbreaking movements of the early 20th century).

Here we’ll explore 10 of the most influential art movements and look at when they began, why they were popular and how their legacy lives on in contemporary art and design.

01. Line art

View of a Skull by Leonardo da Vinci, influential art movements

Study for the head of Leda by Leonardo da Vinci, influential art movements

Leonardo da Vinci’s View of a Skull (1489) and Study for the head of Leda (1505-07) via the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci

While not strictly a singular period, line art winds its way through every art movement—emerging with the earliest cave drawings (that predate writing by thousands of years) and showing up in sculpture, sketches, drawings, illustrations, etches and prints throughout the ages.

Renaissance painter Leonardo da Vinci’s anatomical drawings are examples of the traditional form of line drawing, while modern line art takes more abstract, geometric forms. Jackson Pollock’s expressionistic lashes of paint are considered line art, as are the optical illusions of contemporary British painter Bridget Riley, while Portland-based designer Benjamin Ewing has made the line, itself, a subject matter.

Jackson Pollock’s Convergence, influential art movements

Jackson Pollock’s Convergence (1952) via jackson-pollock.org

Bridget Riley

Bridget Riley’s Fall (1963) via tate.org

You Suffer, I Suffer by Benjamin Ewing, influential art movements

You Suffer, I Suffer by Benjamin Ewing (2017) via Behance

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2. Impressionism and Post-Impressionism

Sunset on the River at Lavacourt, Winter Effect (1882) Claude Monet, influential art movements

Sunset on the River at Lavacourt, Winter Effect (1882) by Claude Monet via creativebloq.com

Van Gogh Starry Night, influential art movements

The Starry Night (1889) by Vincent van Gogh via Wikipedia

Developed in France in the 19th century, Impressionism came about when a crop of Parisian artists—including Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir, and Camille Pissarro—grew bored of their studios, bundled up their brushes, paints and canvases and headed outside.

Typically depicting landscapes, Impressionist works are characterized by fine yet visible brush strokes (that sent traditionalists, who didn’t consider perceptible brushstrokes to be ‘artistic’, into quite the tizzy), and often attempt to capture natural light and the seasons in all their changeable beauty.

Post-Impressionism, helmed by artists like Vincent van Gogh, moved even further away from naturalism and broke all the ‘rules’ of light and color. These days, light remains a key consideration and component across all types of contemporary art and design—and perhaps we have Impressionism to thank for the freedom to experiment with form and color.

Homes of the Future Website by tubik, influential art movements

Homes of the Future Website by tubik via Dribble

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3. Pointillism

Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, influential art movements

Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (1884-86) by Georges Seurat via The Art Institute of Chicago

Also known as ‘stippling art’ or ‘dot art’, Pointillism is a painting technique pioneered by French artists Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. The duo branched off from their Impressionist buddies to evolved their small paint dabs and strokes into distinct dots of color that, when applied en mass, form cohesive, detailed and dimensional images (a little like our modern-day pixels, if you will).

This technique is still widely seen across a diverse array of mediums including fashion, art, and tattoos. Contemporary creatives using Pointillism include Miami-based artist Miguel Endara (whose work Hero is made up of 3.2 million hand-drawn dots using just one pen), Japanese artist Yayoi Kusama (arguably the queen of polka dots) and watercolorist Ana Enshina, author of Lots of Dots: Beautiful Art that Starts with a Dot.

Hero by Miguel Endara, influential art movements

Hero (2011) by Miguel Endara via miguelendara.com

Yayoi Kusama, influential art movements

Yayoi Kusama’s The Spirits of the Pumpkin Descended into the Heavens (2015) via the National Gallery of Australia

Colorful Dotted Animals, influential art movements

An example of Ana Enshina’s Colorful Dotted Animals via Behance

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4. Art Nouveau

french art nouveau poster, influential art movements

F Champenois Imprimeur Editeur (1897) by Alphonse Mucha via creativebloq

Famed party-animal-slash-French-artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was at the helm of Art Nouveau, a movement that flourished across architecture, furniture, jewelry, posters and illustration in Europe and the US between 1890 and 1910.

Inspired by the natural forms of plants and flowers, this pretty period is characterized by curvy shapes, mustard, olive and deep red hues and asymmetrical line work— all in a spirited rebellion against the harsh industrialization of the era.

Czech graphic artist Alphonse Mucha and Spanish architect and sculptor Antonio Gaudí were other notable Art Nouveau figures, and the elaborate arcs that encircle Paris’s Metro entrances (designed by France’s answer to Spain’s Gaudí, Hector Guimard) still stand in tribute to the era.

In recent years, Art Nouveau style has made a comeback by way of the ornate, botanical illustrations trending in graphic design.

Mila Katagovra design, influential art movements

Chocolate bar packaging by Mila Katagarova via 99designs

Alvarez Juana design, influential art movements

Alvarez Juana’s botanical-inspired branding for Florence-based tea shop Tealicious via InDesign

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5. Cubism

Girl with a Mandolin, influential art movements

Girl with Mandolin (1910) by Pablo Picasso via Modernism

Dubbed ‘the first abstract style of modern art’, this revolutionary approach to portraying reality was invented in 1907 by Spain’s Pablo Picasso and French painter Georges Braque. After meeting in Paris, the artistic ‘odd couple’ turned away from more figurative forms and toward total abstraction, together creating Cubism.

Characterized by fragmented subject matters that can be seen from various viewpoints (and so, named after the three-dimensional ‘cube’) this movement rejects the idea that art should copy nature and took influence from the more expressive tendencies of non-Western art.

Cubists introduced collage into painting, a technique that’s still prolific today, as well as the boxy, three-dimensional effect that’s ever popular in contemporary design.

Geometric Beauty Portrait, influential art movements

Geometric Beauty Portrait (2019) by Peter Olexa via Behance

Don Quixote of La Mancha art by Simon Frouws, influential art movements

The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha (2013) by Simon Frouws via Dribble

City sunset, influential art movement

City Sunset (2013) by Dragoslav Malinic via Behance

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6. Futurism

Bombardamento Aereo by Tullio Crali, influential art movements

Bombardamento Aereo by Tullio Crali (1932) via creativebloq

Inspired by the exhilarating moment when he wrote off his car in a ditch after swerving to miss a cyclist, Italian poet and art theorist Filippo Tommaso Marinetti launched Futurism in 1909.

This movement shifts away from the precise lines and square shapes of Cubism, favoring more erratic, angular forms and hanging slopes with the aim of capturing the speed, dynamism, and technologies of the time. (Sidenote: It also employed more female artists than other contemporary movements, and is said to have ‘cleared the way for feminism’).

Futurism was short and sharp (ending in 1916) but left its mark, and can still be detected in the bold intersecting lines and shadows that add dimension and movement to modern-day designs.

Geometric Shapes via Shutterstock, influential art movements

Seamless pattern of geometric shapes via Shutterstock

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7. Art Deco

AM Cassandre Nord Express, influential art movements

Adolphe Mouron Cassandre’s Le Nord Express (1927)

Normandie by AM Cassandre, influential art movements

Normandie (1935) posters via Art Deco Style

Emerging out of Art Nouveau in the 1920s, the Art Deco movement attempted to beautify mass-produced, functional constructs such as clocks, cars and buildings. It reached the height of its popularity between the world wars and sought to represent luxury, glamor and technological and social progress (if you’ve seen The Great Gatsby, you’ll get the drift).

The movement is characterized by a shift away from flowing, floral-inspired forms to streamlined, geometric designs. It favored symmetry, strong vertical lines and sleek forms that mirrored the skyscrapers and steel beams of the Machine Age.

Art Deco’s aesthetic arguably never really went out of fashion, and remains abundant in contemporary culture – especially amid the recent rise of the vintage graphic design trend.

Art Deco by visualcurve, influential art movements

Art Deco style by Earch, influential art movements

Art Deco inspired logos by Earch via 99designs and visualcurve via 99designs

 

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8. Surrealism

The persistence of memory, influential art movements

Salvador Dalí’s The Persistence of Memory (1931) via My Modern Met

It may have been founded by Parisian poet André Breton, but the father of Surrealism is undoubtedly Spain’s Salvador Dalí (of the alarmingly upturned mustache). Emerging in 1924, this artistic and literary movement drew inspiration from the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud, who made a career of tapping into the subconscious mind of his patients.

Surrealists shirked the ‘oppressive rationalism’ of modern society, preferring to focus on subconscious territories—such as dreams and uninhibited imagination. Their works created an ‘element of surprise’ through the presence of random objects and illogical juxtapositions.

Thought-provoking compositions continue to surprise us in many contemporary artworks (like those of Australia’s Blacklist studio and Romanian digital artist Madalina Iordache-Levay) and now that we have photo manipulation tools at our fingertips, Surrealistic styling is abundant in graphic design.

Sometimes I Always, influential art movements

Sometimes I Always print by Blacklist studio

Rain Spell surrealism, influential art movements

Rain Spell by Madalina Iordache-Levay via webdesigner

Lifecoach website design by Spoon Lancer,

Lifecoach website design by Spoon Lancer via 99designs

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9. Pop Art

Andy Warhol Marilyn Monroe

Andy Warhol's prints of Marilyn Monroe (1962-67) via MoMa

Soda, soup and celebrities. These were the subject matters of Pop Art, a movement that emerged during the mid to late 1950s. Although it started in the UK, Pop Art exploded in New York City with artists like Andy Warhol and Jasper Johns tossing out traditional views on what art should be.

Inspired by popular and commercial culture, Pop Art works often feature common household objects, consumer products and packaging (Coca-Cola and Campbell’s Soup cans aplenty) as well as forms of media (comic books, Hollywood movies, advertising) and iconic faces (Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor) familiar to the masses.

Contemporary graphic designers frequently use Pop Art features such as dotted images, bold colors and repeated series of images, and artists Jeff Koons, Alex Katz, and Julian Opie are among those keeping the movement alive.

Julian Opie, influential art movements

Julian Opie's portraits of Blur (2000) via Artfund_

Jeff Koons’ Balloon Dog, influential art movements

Jeff Koons’ Balloon Dog (1993) via Jeff Koons

Briskdays Alex Katz, influential art movements

Alex Katz’s Brisk Day Series (1990) via Artsy

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10. Minimalism

Frank Stella’s Harran II, influential art movements

Frank Stella’s Harran II (1967) via Guggenheim.com

Minimalist art eschewed artistic expression, preferring to keep things literal (as one of Minimalism’s founders, painter Frank Stella, said of the movement, ‘What you see is what you see’). Extreme simplicity was key to this movement, where medium and materials stole the show from the artists behind them.

Emerging in New York in the early 1960s (and also known as ABC art, Literalism, Literal Art, Reductivism and Rejective Art), Minimalism was characterized by sparsity. It’s artists, including Stella, sculptor Donald Judd and painter Carmen Herrera, tended to use the fewest lines and forms possible to create a piece, and early works were, more often than not, monochromatic.

The movement only lasted a decade, but Minimalism is still very much en vogue – with a ‘less is more’ philosophy currently de-cluttering numerous creative fields (à la Marie Kondo). Contemporary artists with a Minimalist mindset include painter Mary Corse, known for her shimmering white monochromes, and sculptor Arno Kortschot.

Mary Corse Untitled (White Multiple Inner Band)2003, influential art movements

Mary Corse’s Untitled White Multiple Inner Band (2003) via AnOther

Infinite Black 2018, influential art movements

Arno Kortschot’s Infinite Black (2018) via 1stdibs

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